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HACCP简介
                                  

HACCP食品卫生安全管理体系
    HACCP是英文“Hazard Analysic Critical Control Point”(即危害分析及关键控制点)的首字母缩写,是用于对某一特定食品生产过程进行鉴别评价和控制的一种系统方法。该方法通过预计哪些环节最可能出现问题,或一旦出了问题对人危害较大,来建立防止这些问题出现的有效措施以保证食品的安全。即通过对食品全过程的各个环节进行危害分析,找出关键控制点(CCP),采用有效的预防措施和监控手段,使危害因素降到最小程度,并采取必要的验证措施,使产品达到预期的要求。HACCP是一个为国际认可的、保证食品免受生物性、化学性及物理性危害的预防体系。它产生于20世纪60年代的美国宇航食品生产企业,已被联合国食品法典委员会采纳并向全球推广。它主要是通过科学和系统的方法,分析和查找食品生产过程的危害,确定具体的预防控制措施和关键控制点,并实施有效的监控,从而确保产品的安全卫生质量。
    它最早出现于20世纪60年代,美国Pillsbury公司为美国太空项目尽其努力提供安全卫生食品时,率先使用了HACCP的概念,美国FDA于1973年决定于低酸罐头食品中采用。1985年美国科学院推荐HACCP应被行政当局采用,经过数年的研究和发展,1989年11月,美国农业食品安全检查局(FSIA)、水产局(NMFS)、食品药品物管理局()FDA等机构发布了“食品生产的HACCP法则”。1990—1995年,美国相继将HACCP应用于禽肉产品、水产品等诸多方面,1997年12月18日美国对输美水产品企业强制要求建立HACCP体系,否则其产品不能进入美国市场。其间中国、欧盟各国、日本、泰国、加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰等许多国家相继学习、推广应用了HACCP知识。迄今为止,HACCP已被许多国际组织如FAO/WHO、CAC等认可为世界范围内保证食品安全卫生的准则。
    HACCP是一种控制危害的预防性体系,是一种用于保护食品防止生物、化学、物理危害的管理工具。传统的质量控制往往注重于最终产品的检验,而这又不能达到消除食源疾患的目的,为此在20世纪60年代由PILLSBURY公司、美国NATICK军队实验室和国家航空宇宙管理部门在开发美国宇宙计划食品中首次提出了HACCP这一概念。它虽然不是一个零风险体系,却是一个食品安全控制的体系,它不是一个独立存在的体系。HACCP必须建立在食品安全项目的基础上才能使它运行。例如:良好操作规范(GMP)、标准的操作规范(SOP)、卫生标准操作规范(SSOP),由于HACCP建立在许多操作规范上,于是形成了一个比较完整的质量保证体系,HACCP作为最有效的食源疾患的控制体系已被国家或社会所接受。

 

HACCP food hygiene and safety management system

HACCP is English “Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point r" (i.e., whose Control were Hazard Analysis and Critical Control points) acronyms, is used for a particular food production process Control and identification evaluation method of a kind of system. This method is most likely by problems which link, or once a problem of great people, to establish prevents these problems and effective measures to ensure food security. The process of food through every link to the hazard analysis and critical control points (CCP) out, adopting effective measures of prevention and control means, make hazard factors is minimized, and take the necessary measures to verify the products intended. HACCP is a guarantee for international recognition and food from the biological, chemical and physical hazards prevention system. It happens in the 1960s American aerospace food production enterprise, has been adopted and the UN food codex alimentations commission to the global popularization. It is mainly through science and the method of system, analysis and find food production process, determine the harm of prevention and control measures and key points, and effective monitoring, thus ensuring the quality of product safety and health.
It first appeared in the 1960s, American Pillsbury Company for the U.S. space program to provide safety and health food, pioneered the use of the concept of HACCP in 1973, American FDA decided in lower Suanguan head used in food. In 1985, the American academy of sciences recommended by the administrative authority shall be HACCP, after years of research and development, November 1989 American agricultural food safety inspection bureau (FSIA), Shui Chanju (NMFS), and the food and drug administration (FDA) things such agencies released "food production rule." HACCP 1990-1995, America will be applied in succession of HACCP poultry products, aquatic products etc., 1997 to December 18 America losing beauty products enterprises established compulsory requirements, otherwise the product of HACCP system can enter the American market. In China, EMU, Japan, Thailand, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, many countries have learning, the popularization and application of HACCP knowledge. So far, HACCP international organization has been many such as the FAO/WHO recognized as such, CAC worldwide guarantee food safety standards.
HACCP is a kind of control system; the preventive harm is a kind of food for protection against biological, chemical and physical hazard management tools. The traditional quality control tend to focus on the final product inspection, which can achieve the purpose to eliminate food source disease, in the 1960s, American NATICK PILLSBURY by national aerospace, military laboratory and administrative departments at the American space development plan for the first time in food put forward the concept of HACCP. Although it is not a zero risk system, is a food safety control system, it is not an independent existence of the system. HACCP food safety project must be based on the basis that it can be operation. For example: good operation specification (GMP), standard specifications (SOP) and sanitary standard specifications (SSOP), because many HACCP standard operation, and formed a comparatively complete quality assurance system, as the most effective HACCP food source disease control system has been accepted by country or society.

 

 

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