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ISO14000简介
                                    

ISO14000环境管理体系
     ISO14000环境管理系列标准是国际标准化组织(ISO)发布的序列号为14000的一系列用于规范各类组织的环境管理的标准。国际标准化组织成立于1974年,是当今世界上最大的国际标准化机构,也是最大的国际科学技术组织,已发布了大量的工业与产品标准,也有管理标准如ISO9000质量系列。
    国际标准化组织为制定ISO14000环境管理系列标准于1993年6月设立了第207技术委员会(TC207)。它是在国际环境保护大趋势下,在92年联合国环境与发展大会之后成立的,下设了6年分委员会和一个工作组,内容涉及环境管理体系(EMS)、环境管理体系审核(EA)、环境标志(EL)、生命周期评估(LCA)、环境行为评价(EPE)等国际环境管理领域的研究与实践的焦点问题,是近十年来环境保护领域的新发展、新思想,是各国彩取的环境经济贸易政策手段的总结,内容非常丰富。TC207的工作是卓有成效的,用三年时间完成了环境管理体系和环境审核标准制定工作,其他标准因内部分岐较大,做为正式国际标准出台尚需时日。我国于1995年10月成立了全国环境管理标准化委员会,迅速对5个标准进行了等同转换,因而环境管理体系及环境审核也就构成了今天意义上的ISO14000的主要内涵。这5个标准是:
    GB/T24001-ISO14001 环境管理体系-规范及使用指南
    GB/T24004-ISO14004 环境管理体系-原理、体系和支撑技术通用指南
    GB/T24010-ISO14010 环境审核指南-通用原则
    GB/T24011-ISO14011 环境管理审核-审核程序-环境管理体系审核
    GB/T24012-ISO14012 环境管理审核指南-环境管理审核员资格要求
    ISO14001为各类组织提供了一个标准化的环境管理模式,即环境管理体系(EMS)。标准对环境管理体系的定义是:“环境管理体系是全面管理体系的组成部分,包括制定、实施、实现、评审和维护环境方针所需的组织结构、策划活动、职责、操作惯例、程序、过程和资源”。实际上,环境管理体系就是企业内部对环境事务实施管理的部门、人员、管理制度、操作规程及相应的硬件措施。一般的,企业对环境事务都进行着管理,但可能不够全面不系统,不能称之为环境管理体系。另一方面,这套管理办法是否能真的对环境事务有效?是否能适合社会发展需求?适应环境保护的要求?在这些问题上各企业之间差异很大。环境问题的重要性日益显著,特别是它在国际贸易中的地位越来越重要,国际标准化组织总结了ISO9000的成功经验,对管理标准进行了修改,针对环境问题,制定了ISO14001标准。可以认为ISO14001标准所提供的环境管理体系是管理理论上科学、实践中可行、国际上公认、且行之有效的。
    ISO14001所规定的环境管理体系共有17个方面的要求,根据各条款功能的类似性,可归纳为5方面的内容:环境方针、规划(策划)、实施与运行、检查与纠正措施、管理评审等。这五个方面逻辑上连贯一致、步骤上相辅相承,共同保证体系的有效建立和实施,并持续改进,呈现螺旋上升之势。首先,实施环境管理体系必须得到最高管理者的承诺,形成环境管理的指导原则和实施的宗旨,即环境方针,要找出企业环境管理的重点,形成企业环境目标和指标;其次,贯彻企业的环境方针目标,确定实施方法、操作规程,确保重大的环境因素处于受控状态;再次,为保证体系的适用和有效,设立监督、检测和纠正机制;最后通过审核与评审,促进体系的进一步完善和改进提高,完成一次管理体系的循环上升和持续改进。

 

 

ISO14000 environmental management system
ISO14000 series standard is the international organization for standardization (ISO) issued a series of the serial number for 14,000 for regulating various organizations of environmental management standards. The international organization for standardization founded in 1974, is the world's largest international standardization organization, is also the biggest international science and technology organizations, has a lot of industrial products and standard; also have standard of ISO9000 quality management such as series.
The international organization for standardization for ISO14000 series standards formulated in June 1993 established the 207th technical committee (TC207). It is in the international environment protection under the big trend in 1992 UN conference on environment and development, has established after 6 years working committee and a portion, environmental management system (EMS), environment management system audit (EA), environment mark (EL), life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental behavior evaluation (international environmental management etc.) EPE field of research and practice, is the focus of nearly ten years in the field of environmental protection, new thoughts, new development is the color of the economic trade policy environment, very informative. TC207 work is fruitful, with three years time to complete the environment management system and environmental auditing standards work, in part because of other standards, as a formal gushy escalating stage of international standard. In October 1995, a national environmental management standardization commission, rapid for five criteria on the equivalent conversion, and environmental management system and environment audit also make up today's main sense of ISO14000. This 5 standard is:
GB/t24001-iso14001 environment management system - code and guide
GB/T24004 - ISO14004 environmental management system, the system and the principle of - general guidelines supporting technologies
GB/T24010 - ISO14010 environment audit guidelines - general principles
GB/T24011 - ISO14011 environmental management review - audit procedure - environment management system audit
GB/T24012 - ISO14012 environmental management audit guidelines - environmental management certification requirements
For all kinds of ISO14001 organization provides a standard of environmental management mode, namely environmental management system (EMS). Standard of environmental management system is defined as the "environmental management system is the comprehensive management system components, including the formulation, implementation and maintenance, implementation, evaluation of environmental policy, planning and organization structure for activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources". Actually, environment management system of environmental affairs is the enterprise internal management department, staff, management system and operation procedures and the corresponding hardware measures. Generally, the enterprises of environmental affairs are carried out, but may not comprehensive management system, can not called environmental management system. On the other hand, the administrative measures for environmental affairs can really effective? Whether to suit the requirements of social development? Adapt to the requirements of environmental protection? In these problems between each enterprise difference is very big. The importance of environment problem increasingly remarkable in international trade, especially it is more and more important role in the international organization for standardization, summarized the successful experience of ISO9000 quality management standards have been modified, according to environmental problems, formulate the ISO14001 standard. Can think ISO14001 criteria provided the environment management system is management theory and practice of science is feasible and international recognized and effective.
The ISO14001 environmental management system by Shared 17 requirements, according to the provisions of the function, can be divided into five analogue of content: the environmental policy, planning, implementation and operation plan), check and corrective actions and management review. These five respects logical consistency, steps, auxiliary accord photogenic the effective guarantee system, build and implement, and continuous improvement, the spiral. First, the implementation of environmental management system must get top management commitment, forming the environmental management guiding principles and implementation, namely environmental policy, to find out the key enterprise of environmental management, enterprise environmental objectives and targets, Secondly, implement enterprise's environmental policy objectives and implementation methods, procedures, to ensure that the major environmental factors are controlled, Again, as applicable, and effective guarantee system, establish supervisory, detection and correction mechanism, Finally, through audits and reviews, promoting system should be further improved and improvement, and complete management system of circular ascendant and continuous improvement.

 

 

 

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